||A fun romp through Asimov's robot
universe, this story still goes on about topics until the characters are
thoroughly finished with them; by then, the readers had been finished
Like its predecessor,
The Robots of Dawn, this book deals more with connecting this universe
with the Foundation one, than anything else. A plot to slowly (or
quickly) destroy Earth, so that it is no longer a key player in galactic
supremacy, is merely a sideline. What is key here is the way the two
robots, Daneel and Giskard, move around and observe humanity.
The main problem with this book is the
same one that plagued the previous book: Giskard. I liked Giskard as a
robot. I even like him as a mind-reading robot. But I don't like the
idea of a mind-altering robot. I don't think it is necessary for the
plot to work, and I think it removes the greatness behind people like
Fastolfe, and, in later books, Hari Seldon. After all, it is Giskard who
discovers the first law of psychohistory. It is Daneel who decides that
humanity takes precedence over an individual human being.
The concept of these robots shaping
humanity into something desirable is distasteful. It leads us towards
destiny, instead of allowing human ingenuity take control. Everything
that happens in the book, and everything that happened in the twenty
decades before the setting in this book, could have easily happened
without manipulation by Giskard. Maybe it would have required a few more
robot books, because it would be more complicated, perhaps, as the
Spacers might send out colonizing robots, but leave the worlds abandoned, or
something like that. After all, Asimov added several books to his
Who is to say that allowing Giskard to be
no more than a mind-reading robot would not give him the advantage, with a
human as advisor and political manipulator, to bring humanity to where
it is at this stage? In any case, I disliked it, even when he simply
removed some hesitation.
Another complaint that I have remains
from Robots of Dawn, and exists in just about all of Asimov's later
novels. He is very wordy. Several chapters contain almost nothing but
dialog. People don't do anything, and we don't even get facial
expressions or movements. Two robots discussing philosophy is not very
interesting except if the philosophy is outstanding. Daneel and Giskard
discuss every nuance of everything in a topic, until there is literally
nothing left to discuss. Aggravating that aspect of the discussion is the
absolute politeness of the two robots. Why, when talking to each other,
must they call each other "friend Daneel, friend Giskard"? It really
stilted the conversations.
The style of writing that Asimov uses
in this sense needs getting used to. His characters don't really do
much. Most of the book is reasoning things out, either discussing it
with somebody or interrogating somebody. This is in place of an internal
monologue, really, which would normally give us a person's thoughts.
This style also allows Asimov to give
us information in a circuitous route, instead of simple exposition. I
don't think there is any exposition in this book that feels like simple
back-story. I love that. The characters circle their point until we have enough
information to assimilate what they are about to say -and then a chapter
break usually appears!
Most of this discussion and reasoning
occurs in the two sections that take place on Aurora. That section gives
us more information about Elijah Baley, and together with later chapter,
his fate. When I first read this book, years and years ago, I remember
thinking that it felt like another book had been started and abandoned.
Now I disagree. The three sections are simply flash-backs, to give us
insight into the end of Baley's life. Once he and Gladia made love on
his spaceship as he went to settle the galaxy. Another time, Giskard
visited Earth and helped manipulate some of the officials there.
Finally, Daneel was the last of the "living" to see Baley alive, as he dies on Baleyworld.
This really helps us understand why
Gladia is not very reluctant to help the new Captain DG Baley on his
quest. Two hundred years have passed since Robots of Dawn, and Solaria
has been abandoned. Two Settler ships were destroyed after they
attempted to salvage some of the robots there, and Baley wants her help
to find out how and why.
The other section that deals with
Aurora takes place from the point of view of Baley's enemy from
of Dawn, Dr. Amadiro, who wants to see Spacers move through the galaxy,
and the Settlers and Earth destroyed. In this, he has the help of Dr.
Mandamus, who knows enough about Earth history to give him an idea of
how to destroy the planet without making it look like the fault of the
We also get another visit from Vasilia,
the woman who disowned Fastolfe as her father. She comes back from a
tour of the Spacer worlds (waiting for her father to die), with some
interesting information. One of those pieces allows her to recall some
modifications that she made to Giskard when she was a teenager. While
some people, like Gladia, mention a fading memory, Vasilia seems to
remember every detail of her life. She relates the modification to
telepathy, and realizes that all of Amadiro's failures are because of
Giskard. This I don't believe, as I mentioned above.
It is here that I have another concern,
which seems more like the author's method of getting on with the story
rather than dealing realistically with the plot. It seems that both
Vasilia and Daneel are incredibly intelligent and wise. Both can reason through
the subtlest hints and make the right conclusion, even based on simple
conjecture. How often is it possible for enemies to follow the same
logical path to the same conclusions, based on different evidence? I
find Vasilia's reasoning to be as absurd as Amadiro did, yet she was
right, because she had access to the author's mind. Daneel was never so
absurd, but his logic was rather thin, as well.
The meatiest and best part of the book
occurs on Solaria, the now-abandoned world. The loss of the world of her
birth and youth is what triggers Gladia's sense that she has lived for
too long without doing anything worthwhile. It is a sense that most
people can relate to, at some point in their lives, I think, and is what
makes the rest of her actions in the book believable.
Robot novels usually deal with murder,
since that is the best way to test the Three Laws of Robotics. In this
book, there is no murder, but Gladia is assaulted on the surface of
Solaria, by a small group of Settler men. I don't believe DG's
explanation of why the Settler ship was all-male, which seems more
medieval than today's values, but since Asimov believes that women do
not like danger, we have to forgive the slant in his novels. I suppose
it provides continuity with Foundation novels, since he wrote them when
he was young, and before he had any female relationships. But I've gone off on
a tangent... The real reason the crew is all male is because Asimov
wanted to have a chance for Daneel to show off, and to remind us that
robots could indeed be dangerous.
Even better than Daneel handling the
Settler man and hurting him to save Gladia from harm, was the way Gladia
handled the overseer robot. Even if she ultimately failed to stop the
overseer, I loved the way she was able to manipulate that humaniform
robot, whose definition of humanity had been narrowed so far as to make
any non-Solarian non-human -and order the robots to destroy them! That
was a very disturbing aspect of this section, and is what helped make it
So the ultimate question, which does
not get answered in this book, is where have the Solarians gone?
Everybody, including Vasilia, think they have left the planet, but where
have they gone? And why leave humaniform (possibly telepathic) robots
behind to guard the surface? I don't remember, but I'm pretty sure we have to
wait until Foundation and Earth to find out, since the main character
visits that planet at that time. It's going to be a heck of a wait!
After leaving Solaria, we go to
Baleyworld, mainly because DG wants to turn over the nuclear intensifier
that the robots were going to use to destroy his ship over to his
authorities. Gladia, who has never faced more than half a dozen people
together in her life, delivers a rousing speech in front of a crowd of
hundreds, during which she decides to dedicate her life to making peace
between all worlds, regardless of "race". She is a heroine because of
her ability to save the crew on Solaria, and her ability to sway the
crowd allows Giskard to develop the dominant law of psychohistory:
humanity can be predicted only in large groups, and can be manipulated
that way by their emotions.
Is Gladia really such a good debater? I
doubt it, but Asimov's characters are always larger than life, are never
ever stupid, and always have undiscovered abilities. And they are always
good debaters. They never stammer for words, or discover the proper
witty response long after the conversation has ended!
After Gladia reports the events on
Solaria and Baleyworld to Amadiro and the Auroran council, Vasilia tries
to kidnap Giskard. Fortunately, by then Daneel has formulated his Zeroth
Law, which allows Giskard to harm Vasilia in the cause of protecting
humanity. They flee to Earth, where Gladia is again hailed as a heroine.
Amadiro and Mandamus are also on Earth,
where they plan to accelerate the nuclear reactions in the mantle of the
planet, slowly irradiating it to the point where it can no longer be
habitable. This is necessary to provide continuity with Pebble in the
Sky, but also serves another very important point. The reason Giskard
doesn't stop the two men when he gets the chance, is because although
Spacers have their own crutches (robots and longevity), the Settlers
also have a massive crutch: Earth as the inviolate, where nothing can go
wrong. If humanity is to have a successful and prolific eternity in a
Galactic Empire (a term used shamelessly often in this book), Earth must
not stand in the way. And by the time of the Foundation novels, it will
not even be in any historical records!
So Daneel's Zeroth Law becomes the
basis for Giskard's actions, and his insistence that Daneel must shape
humanity towards the most desirable -what is that, anyway? He erases the
memories of the events from Amadiro and Mandamus, alters Daneel's brain
to have his telepathic ability, and then dies because he cannot handle
the Zeroth Law.
In a way, this book seems more like a
Foundation novel than a Robot novel. Only Solaria and the duel between
Giskard and Vasilia (and Daneel, which makes it a duel of three) really
dealt with the three laws, though the two robots discussed the laws all
the time. It is a fun story, because it is very interesting to see how
the Spacers and Settlers deal with each other, and DG was really
Unfortunately, the story is wordy, and
it lacks the passion that Elijah Baley brought to the earlier novels.
Everything progressed very logically, with great debates and discussions
(even if they went on for too long), but it might have been a little too
logical, too scientific. Everything is explained in exacting detail, as if Asimov
saw a potential problem in what he was saying, and so decided to reason
it out for his audience. Every time something looks wrong, it turns out
it was made that way on purpose. The prime examples of this are the
exact number of times Daneel saw Elijah, which is not explained until
much later, and the exact number of times Gladia has been on a
spacecraft, which also doesn't add up until they get to Baleyworld and
we learn that she went at Elijah's death, as well. It almost seems
thought through too well! Humanity is about passion and
expression, something the robots necessarily are missing. Since the book
is told mainly from the point of view of the robots, the story is
lacking a little of it, too.
Looking through the table of contents,
I have always loved the way Asimov makes little games or stories with
his chapter titles. The best use is probably in the Galactic Empire
novels, but the four robot novels are also well written, and give a
sense of urgency in all the right places!
Finally, I remember writing a letter to
Asimov discussing the use of the word "mile" in this book. In one
chapter, before they go to Three Mile Island (Asimov later wrote
wondering why he didn't predict Chernobyl!), they discuss the forgotten
term "mile", and what it could mean. But only a few pages later, the
minister of energy points up a hill and says "just a few miles..."
Earlier, Gladia even fell "a few inches" to her seat in the spacecraft.
I never received a response, and I know this is hardly likely to be a
result of my
achievement, but Asimov never used the Imperial system again in a novel
that I read afterwards!
By no means a letdown, this book is a
great story featuring Asimov's robots. It just seems a little "obvious"
to me in what it tries to achieve, and I still maintain that it is not
necessary for Giskard to be able to manipulate minds to arrive where